- In preparation. Apollonius Dyscolus: On the Pronoun. A New Edition, with Introduction, Translation, and Commentary [Abstract] Grammar as we know it today was invented by the Greeks. The first grammatical treatise in Greek to have survived from antiquity is Apollonius’ monograph on pronouns. More than a hundred pages long, closely argued and densely written, it features extensive discussions of such notions as anaphora, deixis, person, etc. I am preparing the first full edition of this seminal text since 1878, its first English translation, and the first commentary on it in a modern language.
- Encrypted preprint of the first half, the so-called pars generalis (Pron. 3.1–49.7 Schneider).
- In preparation.
Arist. Met. Γ[Abstract] Coming soon.
- More info soon.
- In preparation.
Stoic Deixis[Abstract] If one trusts the scholarly consensus, Chrysippus’ definite articles—our personal and demonstrative pronouns—are either deictic or anaphoric: in
I walk, the definite article
Ideictically signifies me; in
If Dio walks, he walks, the definite article
heanaphorically signifies Dio. This view is flawed: I show that we have no reason to ascribe the notion of anaphora to Chrysippus. For (i) the technical terms ἀναφορά, ἀναφέρειν, etc. are not found in what remains of his writings; (ii) no other terms are used in their stead; and (iii) Chrysippus’ logic does not presuppose the notion. In Chrysippus’ eyes, then, all definite articles are deictic.
- A revised version of a paper for which, in 2006, I received a Graduate Student Award from The Aristotelian Society and The Mind Association.
- In preparation.
Ancient Linguistic Science & Textual Criticism: The Possessive Pronoun ὅс in Homer, Trends in Classics [Abstract] In epic poetry, it is said, the third-person primitive pronoun οὗ (οἷ, ἕ) is either reflexive (
himself) or anaphoric (
him). The possessive pronoun ὅс/ἑόс, by contrast, is said to be only reflexive. Linguistically speaking, this lack of parallelism is unexpected, for the possessive ὅс is derived from the primitive οὗ. Furthermore, according to Apollonius Dyscolus, ὅс does in fact present the same ambiguity as οὗ. I shall examine in some detail one of the passages he adduces—Iliad 3.244—as well as his claim that although all or most manuscripts show the reading ἑῆι, Aristarchus had adopted Dicaearchus’ reading φίληι because he considered the possessive to be always reflexive. I next show that out of the two hundred occurrences of the possessive in the Iliad and the Odyssey a dozen are indeed anaphoric. Thence I conclude that Apollonius was right—the possessive ὅс presents the same ambiguity between reflexive and anaphoric as its primitive sibling οὗ.
- By invitation.
The Origins of Anaphora, Language & History [Abstract] Anaphora is a central topic in the study of natural language and as such the object of research in a wide range of disciplines. Yet virtually no work has been done on the early history of the notion. This paper will situate the ancient discussions of anaphora in their proper context, and expound and briefly assess certain key con- cepts that have been overlooked so far.
- This paper won the 2010 Vivien Law Prize for an Essay on the History of Linguistic Ideas; preprint; will soon be available on Ingenta.
The Birth of Grammar in Greece, in EJ Bakker, ed., A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 499–511 [Abstract] An overview of the beginnings of linguistic science in antiquity.
- By invitation; preprint.
Le De pronomine de Priscien et son modèle grec, in M Baratin, B Colombat, and L Holtz, edd., Priscien, Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 168–182 [Abstract] Priscian’s Ars is generally considered the apogee of Latin grammar. Yet he himself claims to have followed in every respect the authority of Apollonius Dyscolus (Ars 13.24.7; al.). For a proper assessment of Priscian’s place in the history of linguistic thought, it is thus indispensable to clarify the relation between his and Apollonius’ œuvre. Focusing on books 12 and 13, I first present a list of all Apollonian passages translated or paraphrased by Priscian, and discuss one of these in more detail (Ars 13.15.9–28). I then analyze the order of Priscian’s exposition, and compare it with the structure of his Greek model. Finally I give two examples—the notions of figure and of reflexivity—to illustrate how, and why, their theories differ from one another. Thence I conclude that the currently fashionable view of Priscian as a foundational thinker, almost entirely detached from the Greek tradition, is mistaken, and that, on the contrary, he can only be understood against the backdrop of Apollonian grammar.
- By invitation; original PDF.
Κόμανοс, The Classical Quarterly 58, pp. 331–334 [Abstract] Scholars spell and accentuate Comanus’ name in a variety of ways. I show, first, that direct witnesses leave no doubt that the correct spelling is K O M A N O C ; and, secondly, that according to Herodian—the ancient authority on orthoepy—the word should be pronounced as proparoxytone. The latter argument is based on a new reading of the palimpsest Vindob. Hist. gr. 10.
- Peer-reviewed journal article; original PDF, also available from Cambridge UP.
Selbstverweise bei Apollonios Dyskolos, in Τ Fögen, ed., Antike Fachtexte, Berlin: de Gruyter, pp. 137–153 [Abstract] I show that external cross-references within Apollonius Dyscolus’ œuvre allow us to establish a relative chronology of his works. In the case of the four extant treatises, the resulting order—contrary to the communis opinio—is as follows: On the Pronoun antedates On Connectives, which antedates On Adverbs, which antedates On Syntax.
- Peer-reviewed conference paper; preprint; includes, in addition, a translation of all quoted passages.
- 2010. Review of O Jungen & H Lohnstein: Geschichte der Grammatiktheorie. Von Dionysios Thrax bis Noam Chomsky, Historiographia Linguistica 37, pp. 200–206
- Original PDF, also available from Ingenta.
- 2008. Review of J-B Gourinat: Le stoïcisme, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2008.08.48, <http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/2008/2008-08-48.html>
- 2007. Review of P Brandenburg: Apollonios Dyskolos. Über das Pronomen, The Classical Review 57, pp. 82–83
- Original PDF, also available from Cambridge UP.
- 2009. Syrianus et la métaphysique de l’antiquité tardive. Edited by A Longo, with AU Schmidhauser, et al., Elenchos 51, Naples: Bibliopolis [Abstract]
An edition of the proceedings of the Colloque international
Syrianus, held at the University of Geneva in 2006.
- 2001–2013. A Complete Bibliography on Apollonius Dyscolus,
<http://schmidhauser.us/apollonius/bibliography> [Abstract] This is the first full bibliography on the princeps grammaticorum. Many entries have links to online texts, either on this website or on a repository such as JSTOR.
- Online; regularly updated.
- 2010–2013. A Bibliography on Parisinus Graecus 2548,
<http://schmidhauser.us/apollonius/mss/paris-2548> [Abstract] A parchment of the early tenth or ninth century, Paris. gr. 2548 is one of the most important manuscripts in ancient grammar—it is our best witness for Apollonius’ Syntax, and our sole witness for his treatises on pronouns, adverbs, and connectives.
- Online; regularly updated.
Ἐργογραφία Michael Frede, Deucalion 25, pp. 193–200 [Abstract] Michael Frede died in 2007. The above is a bibliography of his writings.
- Postprint (2011)—a number of Frede’s pieces were published only after his death.